Peloids are the deposits of the silts formed after an entirely biological process by mineral degradation of phytoplankton and zooplankton.

Decomposed under oxygen deficiency, peloids can be autochthonic (resulted from biomass transformation) or allochthonous (formed from water catchment area humus substances) by their origins.

Because of strong organic dominance autochthonic peloids are considered to be very valuable substances. It’s determined by the fact that initial biomass organic degradation doesn’t produce multi-nuclear(s) aroma structures (benzpyrene type) unlike in soil, peat or carbon humic substances.

Lake biomass contains

Formation peloids biomass

Peloids consist of a variety of minerals and organic compounds, both preserved in the original biomass (residues of algae, plants, etc.), and newly formed in the process of biochemical transformation of organic matter – humic substances, vitamins, enzymes, and free amino acids.
When there is a lack of new humus material from the lake water catchment area, it will be reflected in the quantity and chemical composition of the humic acids.The high amount of humic acids indicates the depth of transformation of the organic matter (humus).
In a case when organic transformations are still going on, peloids preserve most of the original biomass components (carotenoids, flavonoids, zoo- and phytosterols) in their unchanged or slightly transformed origin with an insignificant amount of humic acids (2-10%), which leads to green or light olive mud color gamma.

Within further peloids development (in an upper layer only) the mud accumulates humic acids (dark brown or black) thus transforming its color into dark olive-brown-black gamma.
Naturally, deep biochemical decomposition reduces the number of organic components in the mud and increases its ash rate by the annihilation of labile structures (carbohydrates, pectins, easy-hydrolyzed substances). However, the total share of humic acids, lipids and easily hydrolyzed substances still make up 70%.

As the result of nearly total biomass destruction (95-99%), peloids obtain their homogenic structure with a high content of fine particles less than 0.05mm) and water (up to 25 gr per 1 gr of peloids).